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Learning Disabilities

 

What is a Learning Disability?

The term "Learning Disability" describes a group of disorders characterised by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and/or speech skills. Types of learning disabilities include reading and spelling disability (dyslexia), writing disability (dysgraphia) and mathematics disability (dyscalculia).The term does not include those who have learning problems which are primarily the result of sensory or physical handicaps, or mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. People with specific learning disabilities characteristically display average to above average intelligence in all other areas.

 

Dyslexia

Dyslexia is the most common learning disability. It is about five times more prevalent in males than in females, and is more likely to affect left-handed individuals.  Many people with dyslexia are considered to be strongly right-brain dominant.  They will be very good at visual-spatial tasks such as puzzles and map-reading. Whilst no two people with Dyslexia are exactly alike, most dyslexics will display a good number of the following characteristics:

Reading

 

Spelling

 

 

Dysgraphia

 

Dysgraphia is so commonly found in people with dyslexia that it is often considered to be part of the same disorder. Also known as a visual-motor integration problem, people with dysgraphia have poor, nearly illegible handwriting. Signs of dysgraphia include:

 

Handwriting

 

Dyscalculia

 

Individuals with dyscalculia have difficulties in mathematics. The brain areas which appear to be affected in dyscalculia are areas which are specialised to represent quantity.  Dyscalculia is equally likely to occurr in both males and females. Whilst there is some cross-over into the dyslexic population, there are many dyslexic people who excel at maths, and likewise, many with dyscalculia are strong readers and spellers.

 

Mathematics

 

Many thanks to Susan Barton from www.brightsolutions.us  for allowing us to use information from her website regarding characteristics of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia; and

Many thanks to Dr Anna Wilson from www.aboutdyscalculia.org for allowing us to use information from her website regarding characteristics of Dyscalculia.

 

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